Frequently asked questions and answers about innovative 3Thermo radiator heating

Surface heating is heating with the use of a surface. Subfloor heating is a well-known example of surface heating. Normally these are low temperature systems in which water temperature is limited to 25-35°C. 3Thermo is also surface heating system, but the water temperature is not limited (110°C). Thermal energy is accumulated in the wall, which then radiates into the room. Surface heating is characterized by a different method of heat release. As opposed to convective systems (radiators), the heat is transferred without using air, it radiates. This does not mean that the air is not heated; however, it is not used as the main heat medium. The system does not process the air, it does not dry the air and does not mix it with dust. The heat is optimally distributed across the room, closest to ideal temperature profile. Surface heating is normally used to heat well insulated buildings, but 3Thermo works very well also in poorly insulated and uninsulated buildings, because it is located in external walls where it directly prevents heat losses.

3Thermo is a solution similar to subfloor heating. The vertical system of walls, as compared to the horizontal system of the floor, allows for more efficient use of heat emission (radiation) than convection (air movement). The less energy we use to heat the air, the less energy we lose. The air is a very poor heat accumulator (it does not have accumulative capabilities like, for example a solid form, stone, concrete etc.) and it rises quickly looking for a “way out”. Heating with a radiator involves blowing out warm air, and after the heater is turned off, the temperature in the room falls very quickly. In wall heating, all of the energy reaches the wall and heats it. Dry wall is much better insulator, the heat is accumulated in the wall and does not escape with the air.

The existing technological solutions were not the safest and the most efficient. The introduction of a tube with water under the plaster required the use of special plasters (otherwise, they would crack). It also made it necessary to use a very thick layer of plaster. Considering contact with the electrical system in the walls and the fact that it was easy to damage the system, few people decided to use this form of heating despite its obvious advantages. The installation itself was another important problem – while the arrangement of tubes is time-consuming, however, most installers were not able to perform the appropriate deaeration of the system. On the other hand, electricity-based systems generated an electromagnetic field and attracted charges together with dust, which resulted in the formation of “prints” on the wall, indicating the heating cable routing. Modern 3THERMO concealed heaters eliminate 100% of all mentioned problems; they are very easy to install, safe to use, efficient and do not require any maintenance.

Both types of heating belong to the family of surface systems, and as such, they have an advantage over convective systems. However, the wall system has an additional advantage, as it balances heat losses where they occur, and the greatest heat losses occur in external walls and not in the floor. Subfloor heating does not solve the problem with heat losses through the external walls and roof. In this way, it is the wall sys- tem that is the most efficient and has the most even heat distribution, not the subfloor heating. Generally, the subfloor system has many disadvantages. The maintenance is very complicated, the inertia is high and it has to be well designed and optimised. The further away from the external wall it is, the warmer it becomes. To make up for this effect, it must take into account the density of the tube arrangement from the external walls. In contrast, 3Thermo radiator has the lowest inertia, the heat distribution is ideal and it can precisely, quickly and efficiently make up for the heat losses. When the wall temperature is higher than the air temperature in the room, the air will not cool down when it comes in contact with the wall. Thus, the air temperature will always remain constant and the users will feel thermal comfort. Heated, warm and dry wall does not produce moulds and allergens.

A well-designed and properly installed wall-heating unit basically has no flaws. In the system with a large heating area, the issue of furniture arrangement by the wall also becomes insignificant. The energy which partially covered, e.g. by a wardrobe, does not disappear and still is an element separating from external factors. If wall heating is constructed using 3THERMO concealed radiators, we eliminate one defect, i.e. damaging the tube with water. 3THERMO radiators do not introduce water under the plaster as the heat is distributed by the radiator itself without the use of water.

The feeling is similar to the feeling we get when we stand in front of the window on a sunny winter day. De- spite the low outside temperatures, we feel pleasant warmth from the sun. We feel the ideal thermal comfort when the air temperature is constant all over the room. Blowing the hot air is comfortable only when we feel cold (thermal imbalance). The similar applies to subfloor heating.

  • To increase efficiency and decrease heating costs, the 3Thermo should be installed in external walls where the biggest heat losses occur.
  • Optimal heat distribution and optimal air humidity (40-60%)
  • Better for health; no conditions for mould, fungus, allergens and dust
  • No need to buy ionizer, ventilation system, humidifier or air cleaner.
  • Maintaining equal thermal comfort by decreasing the air temperature
  • The system is safer, there are no water leakages in the wall.
  • Up to 15% lower heating costs.
  • Easier to install, only 1 min per radiator.
  • Easier to control and easier to optimize the system, better hydraulic efficiency

The basic difference between the floor and wall heating systems lies in the transmission of heat (although both of them are surface heating systems). In floor heating, similarly to heaters, a stream of heat energy with the air flows towards a cold external wall. In this case, the wall absorbs not only heat energy, but also humid- ity from the air. The process dries the air in the room and increases humidity of the building envelope. It is only wall heating that can reverse the process. The wall temperature is always higher than air temperature. Consequently, the wall cannot absorb humidity and stays dry. Furthermore, wall heating shifts water steam condensation point outside the wall, thus excluding freezing and improving the wall quality and its thermal insulation capacities. Dry wall is much better insulator than wet wall, relative humidity remains at optimal level (40-60%) and the room temperature stays constant. A dry wall prevents moulds, fungus and allergens to grow. 3Thermo transfers the heat from the medium (hot water) to the wall without requiring any additional energy, which means higher hydraulic and energy efficiency. In case of higher outside temperature swings, the 3Thermo radiator will quickly react to these changes and maintain set room temperature. The climate conditions in the room will be always kept at optimal level. Let us examine a situation when a floor heating system must be switched off because of a fast increase of external temperature (on a very sunny winter day). The floor will not emit the accumulated energy very fast, and in addition, solar energy will be absorbed by external walls and rooms with glazed surfaces (windows, etc.) We will have to divert excessive heat energy by ourselves, by opening the windows, thus removing heat produced at our own cost. In case of a 3Thermo, additional solar energy will not add up to the energy we have provided since the wall heating capacity is lim- ited. Also, 3Thermo is better choice when we want to modernize the existing heating in the building with more efficient solution. The replacement is easy without destroying too much in the building. We mount 3Thermo on the “naked” wall, connect it to the existing installations and cover it with the plaster (check pg.19). Both 3Thermo and subfloor heating use the same type of installations (manifold, central control system, pex pipes, etc..). That is why both systems are compatible and can be installed in the building at the same time.

First of all, 3THERMO radiators are concealed radiators, so they cannot be seen; they do not hang on a wall but are a part of it. They do not heat the air but the wall itself. Consequently, the room humidity is always optimal (40-60%) and the room temperature is always constant. There are no conditions for the growth of mould, fungus, allergens and dust. In comparison to regular radiators, 3Thermo is more efficient, too. It de- creases the heating cost up to 40%. Normally, the heated air rises and remains below the ceiling, which is inefficient. And heat always “moves” from a warmer body to a colder one. When we stand in front of a cold wall with a temperature16°C, our body wants to heat the wall and gives our thermal energy to it. We perceive it as thermal discomfort. Normally we have to compensate our energy losses by overheating the air in the room. On the other hand, with 3Thermo, the temperature of the wall is similar to the temperature of our body and always higher than the air temperature, so we will never feel thermal discomfort and we will not need to overheat and dry the air. Heating systems should be installed in places where the biggest heat losses occur. That is why we place regular radiators below the windows. Floors are certainly not the place where the heat losses occur, but the external walls are. Also, it is much more efficient and economical to heat external walls, because the walls are excellent accumulator of heat. Dry wall is much better insulator and as a result it cre- ates thermal barrier. The heat does not escape through the external walls, it accumulates there. Because the wall temperature is always higher than the air temperature, the air alongside the wall will not cool down and thus maintain its constant and optimal temperature. Warm and dry wall will not absorb moisture either, the air will be kept clean and the wall healthy. It is much healthier to breathe cooler air with natural humidity, with- out losing thermal comfort. Overheated air is perfect for growth of bacteria, mould and allergens. It is also harmful to our skin, because it dries it out. Furthermore, 3Thermo is easier the install and maintain, because it does not require to bleed the air, cleaning or any other maintenance.

Yes and it is very easy. By installing new manifold, we connect 3Thermo radiator to the existing piping. Firstly, we need to remove old regular radiator, then remove the existing layer of plaster where we want to install 3Thermo radiator. We can also mount it on existing layer of plaster but then we have to cover it with the new layer.

Yes, it was tested in the harshest environments. The room temperature in test house in Russia was -20°C and 3Thermo was still performing excellent. Also, keep in mind that the quality of water in the central system is very important, because hard water creates limescale in the furnace, piping and in the radiator as well, which can cause the equipment to break down. The solutions is to add appropriate additives in the water.

Yes, they are. The structure of the radiator separates the hydraulic part from the cores. Water does not take part in heat transport under the plaster. Damage to walls and also to the radiator does not cause a hydraulic failure of the central heating system. Other radiators still operate and there is no water leakage. If we damage the radiators, only the gas in the cores starts to leak, but the gas is harmless and inexplosive.

Heat always moves from the higher (warmer) potential to the lower (colder) one; it chooses the simplest way acting in all directions. It is accumulated in solids, dispersed in gaseous states (liquid is an intermediate system). Heat and warm air are not the same. Only warm air goes up. Heat as energy corresponds to the nature of light more and since light can shine from top to bottom; heating is certainly possible in this way. 3Thermo radiator does not heat the air.

Somebody must be first. Most likely, the idea will catch on, and soon we will hear about other designs of concealed radiators; it is certainly only a matter of time and there is the possibility of patent protection. The market is too large for us to be able to keep the status as the only manufacturer.

Regardless of the type of heat emission, whether it occurs as a result of warm air movement (blowers, heat- ers, convectors) or by thermal radiation (tile furnaces, chimneys, radiators, floor heating), the heat gets out through partitions, which separate us from the cold (external walls, the roof). However, heat generated in the wall (concealed radiators) does not escape together with the air (chimney losses), it is accumulated there. Thermal insulation of the partition is mostly responsible for preventing the heat from getting outside. In this case, wall heating is a positive phenomenon as a dry wall is a much poorer conductor (it constitutes greater resistance for escaping heat) than a wet one. Economically, there is no better system than surface heating in external partitions. The fact that they were not so popular results mostly from technological limitations and the predominance of radiators on the heating market.

Absolutely not, never. The heating capacity will indeed be improved when the wall is insulated; however, we will eliminate the natural capacity to regulate the moisture content. The wall has a certain capacity both with regard to heat and moisture. For the wall system, this is a part of the self-regulation system. If we separate it by using insulation, we will eliminate it. In this case, the system will require continuous mechanical ventilation. It will also have a considerable influence on the shift of the water vapour condensation point from the outside towards the centre of the wall. A wall in which water condenses is a sick wall with reduced durability and a tendency for fungus and mould formation. The only insulation that makes sense is good external insulation.

Of course, 3Thermo radiator is the only heating system with hygienic certificate. There are no conditions for mould, allergens and dust to grow in the room, which is very important for people with breathing and other health problems. Because of radiation, the air is not circulating in the room like in the case of regular radiators. The air has always optimal humidity, constant and optimal temperature and it is clean. There is no need to buy ionizer and humidifiers.

Superficial measures won’t bring a lasting change if you don’t address the root cause of dampness. The mould will keep coming back as long as the conditions favourable to its development persist. First of all, the dampness comes from outside. Your walls get battered with constant rain which slowly seeps in, affecting more than just external surfaces, so that inevitably the dampness will develop inside the wall. And partic- ularly if your building doesn’t have good isolation fitted in, you will soon see the effects inside your house as well. Add to that all the dampness generated inside: cooking, showering, hanging laundry to dry,etc..! With every one of these activities you release an amount of vapour into the atmosphere. Traditional systems focus on heating up the air inside the house, without warming the wall at all. You can often feel just how cold the walls stay even when the radiators work with full power! The air naturally tends to travel from the hottest to the coldest point, which means that all this moisture we created hits the wall and builds up on it, which eventually leads to the development of mould. With 3Thermo we reversed the traditional order, starting with warming up the wall. That means that the wall gets dried up and constantly maintained this way, never to be affected by dampness again. The heat then is released into the house, keeping the air warm without drying it out like traditional heating does.

The entire radiator is made of an aluminium alloy. Even a relatively aggressive alkaline environment con- tained in the cement mortar does not have a destructive influence on this aluminium alloy. The radiator itself does not have any movable and mechanical parts. If it is manufactured correctly, without defects, it is a practically everlasting installation. The quick maintenance service is recommended once every 10 years just to check if the radiator still heats as it should.

The selection chart for the concealed radiator can be found in technical part of the brochure. The heater capacity depends on the supply temperature, the flow temperature and the heating resistance of the mass in which the radiator is placed. Due to a very broad range of operation, the radiator can be selected in a sur- face low-temperature system as well as in a surface “point” high-temperature system (max. 100°C). Optimal water temperature is 30-60°C. The higher the water temperature in the circuit, the quicker will 3Thermo warm the room. If our heat source warms the water to higher temperatures than planned, then our control system will automatically shorten the working time and limit or close the water flow to the circuit. 3Thermo radiator is the only heater that works with full efficiency regardless of water temperature.

Yes. The 3THERMO radiator can be thought of as one of the ribs of a regular radiator. All the “ribs” that are connected in parallel form a single circuit. If we have a regular 1.5 kW radiator already installed, we can replace it with approximately 6 units of 3THERMO radiators. Their power is equivalent to 1.5kW.

We can achieve any temperatures. The 3THERMO radiators do not have any limitations in this respect. The optimal water temperature in the circuit is 30-60°C, the optimal air temperature 16-24°C and optimal wall temperature is 25-43°C. The goal is not to heat the wall but to maintain constant and optimal air temperature in the room, regardless of low external temperatures. When the external temperatures decrease, the heat requirements increase and as a result the heater must heat with higher power. But the wall temperature does not change. This is possible as the loss of heat is supplemented directly where it occurs, in the external wall. For this reason, we do not have to overheat the system to balance thermal differences. It is a very important point due to two aspects: health and economics. Firstly, we can reduce the air temperature in the room with- out compromising comfort. It is healthier when we breathe in cooler air with natural humidity; secondly, it is cheaper when we do not have to increase the temperature so much. Reducing the temperature by only 1°C means reducing energy consumption by approx. 5-7% (depending on the degree of thermal permeability of the partition).

It depends on several factors such as water temperature, water flow, room size and outdoor temperature. In general, when the central heating system is switched on for the first time, the radiator will need several hours or up to one day to run at full efficiency. For example, at a facility in Minsk, where the outside temperature was -17°C, it took 30 hours for the radiator to operate at full efficiency, at first start-up. Why so long? When the radiator starts to heat for the first time, it must dry out the moisture from the wall before it starts to heat the room. However, after the first start-up, when full radiator efficiency is achieved, the radiator is very flexible and responsive in its operation. Radiators or the central heating system should not be switched off in the winter, even if you are not at home. Because once it is off, the wall gets wet and it must repeat the process described above again. The radiator must heat without interruption. The user just adjusts the temperature according to his needs and the 3THERMO radiator will respond to these changes instantly. The constant maintenance of a certain temperature will help the radiators to operate more efficient and economical.

3Thermo is up to 15% more cost efficient than subfloor heating and up to 40% more efficient than regular radiators.

It is easier to explain this in the following way: A person is like a furnace with a constant temperature 36.6°C. Ideal air temperature is ca. 20°C. Heat always “moves” from a warmer body to a colder one. When we stand in front of a cold wall, our body wants to heat the wall and gives its thermal energy to it. We perceive it as thermal discomfort. To prevent discomfort and compensate for the energy losses, we must overheat the air. In the opposite situation, when the temperature of the wall is higher than air temperature, the air temperature will never decrease, the air will never cool down when it comes in contact with warmer wall and the air tem- perature will remain constant. So we do not need to overheat the air. We feel different when we can breathe in cooler air with natural humidity than when we breathe in air that is too dry. Additionally, we eliminate the movement of dust, allergens, mites etc.

There are no limitations, we can place it in internal or external wall. The only limitation is the space available for a 3Thermo radiator. One should also remember about the general installation principle, according to which we install radiators on external walls. However, if there is not enough free space on external walls, we can place them on internal walls. It can be mounted on the wall and covered with new layer of plaster or it can be mounted on existing plaster and then covered with a new layer. Also, it can be installed on stud wall (special 3Thermo plasterboard version). The installations should be placed in the wall, behind the skirting or under the floor.

The radiator weights less than 1.5 kg. Clips – mounting brackets are used only for hanging the radiator on the wall before plastering. After applying the plaster on the wall, the radiator will bind with it and will be an element of the additional plaster structure. The radiator mesh is modelled on Rabitz mesh which has been used in the construction sector for years.

Any control system is compatible with 3Thermo radiators. The control system used for underfloor heating works perfect with 3Thermo, as well.

Indeed, the loss is even desired, as it is the loss (the amount of released heat) that determines the capacity of the system. If the radiator did not release (did not lose) the heat collected from water, it could not be a radiator used for heating. But the heating system itself (radiator) in an insulated environment (without any losses) will transfer exactly the same preset temperature to the very top of its structure (1.7 m) with contin- uous supplementation (water must have a constant temperature and supply the system all the time). It is as possible as transporting a temperature in a tube with water to a height of 1.7 m (in an insulated environment). Actually, at such a short distance, it is even possible in an uninsulated environment; it is enough to choose a sufficient flow, and the loss will not be detected by basic equipment. The ability to release heat by the sys- tem always depends on the size of the surface area of the system. The ability to release heat by the system always depends on the size of the surface area of the system.

Concealed radiators are not a universal product. It is however worth noting that glazed buildings, even modern ones, have increased heat demand. This means that compensating for heat balance from surface heating (e.g. floor heating) may be difficult. On the other hand, combined floor-wall type systems stand a great chance of fully compensating for heat losses.

We provide a 20-year warranty for the designed 3THERMO system on the condition that it is installed by a Certified Installer.